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Cephalopholis leopardus  (Lacepède, 1801)

Leopard hind
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Cephalopholis leopardus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Cephalopholis leopardus (Leopard hind)
Cephalopholis leopardus
Picture by Greenfield, J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 9710), usually 3 - 20 m (Ref. 37816).   Tropical; 31°N - 20°S, 40°E - 148°W (Ref. 5222)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9 - 10. Resembles C. urodeta, but always has a distinctive dark saddle on caudal peduncle (Ref. 37816); characterized further by reddish brown head with numerous red-orange or pinkish red spots, extending to pectoral region; mottled pinkish brown body; upper caudal-fin base with large dark brown saddle with smaller saddle just behind; upper part of caudal fin with dark brown streak, less intense streak on lower part; ctenoid scales on body including abdomen; greatest depth of body 2.6-2.9 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 2.0-2.3 in head length (Ref 90102).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: East Africa (but not the Red Sea, Persian Gulf or South Africa) to the Society Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Including most islands of the Indian Ocean and that of the west-central Pacific (Ref. 5222). Record from Rodriguez by Heemstra & Randall (1984, Ref. 3153) could not be verified and is probably erroneous (Ref. 33390).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in coral-rich areas of lagoon pinnacles, channels, and outer reef slopes. Solitary (Ref. 37816), a secretive species, usually hiding in caves and crevices in the reefs. One of the smallest species of groupers known. Omnivorous with diet composed of fishes and crustaceans; relatively low egg production per individual (Ref. 089707).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.