Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae
(Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Phalloceros: Greek, phallos = penis + Greek, keras = horn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
South America: Brazil in the drainages of rio Parati, rio Barra Grande, rio São Roque, rio Taquari and rio Itinguçu (small coastal drainages of Rio de Janeiro).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 2.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 76852); 4.5 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 9 - 11;
Vertebrae: 32. Autapomorphically diagnosed by having hook on left half of gonopodial appendix near its tip, located approximately from distal quarter to the distal third of length of gonopodial appendix, and spot on median region of flanks elongate, forming a vertical bar reaching dorsal and ventral profiles. Differs from its congeners but Phalloceros megapolos,
Phalloceros spiloura, Phalloceros malabarbai, Phalloceros alessandrae, Phalloceros buckupi, Phalloceros uai, Phalloceros lucenorum, Phalloceros pellos, and Phalloceros reisi by the female urogenital papilla curved to the right, located laterally (vs. slightly left turned and with a lateral ramus or straight located along midventral line); and border of the anal aperture in contact with the first anal-fin ray or very close to it (vs. separated from first anal-fin ray by the female urogenital papilla). Can be differentiated from its congeners except Phalloceros spiloura, Phalloceros uai, Phalloceros lucenorum, Phalloceros pellos, and Phalloceros reisi by the absence of the right hook and presence of the left one (vs. absence or presence of left and right hooks), and gonopodial appendix asymmetrical; its halves different from each other; right half wider than left one (vs. gonopodial appendix symmetrical; its halves similar to each other). Can be separated from Phalloceros spiloura by the absence of a caudal peduncle spot (vs. presence of caudal peduncle spot); from Phalloceros uai by the presence of a wide and square-shaped lateral spot in large specimens (vs. absence of such spot); from Phalloceros lucenorum by rectangular tip of hook on left half of gonopodial appendix (vs. rounded tip); from Phalloceros lucenorum, Phalloceros pellos, and Phalloceros reisi by the lateral spot in adult females very narrow, forming a vertically elongated bar covering up to the length corresponding to two scales length in horizontal direction and 2-4 scales in vertical direction (vs. lateral spot in adult females absent, small, or elliptical to roundish, but never forming a vertical bar) (Ref. 76852).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lucinda, P.H.F., 2008. Systematics and biogeography of the genus Phalloceros Eigenmann, 1907 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae), with the description of twenty-one new species. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 6(2):113-158. (Ref. 76852)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00289 - 0.01579), b=3.13 (2.94 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .