Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 30915). Temperate, preferred ?; 33°S - 34°S
Southeast Atlantic: endemic to South Africa. Hippocampus capensis has the smallest known range of any seahorse and was the first to be assessed as threatened on the IUCN Red List, in 1994. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 5.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.1 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 31848); common length : 7.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4281)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found in bays and estuaries among submerged vegetation; diurnal (Ref. 4281, 30915). Can tolerate salinities from 1-59 ppt (Ref. 30915). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Length type refers to Height (= from top of coronet to the tip of straightened tail).
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00163 - 0.01116), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=1; Fec=7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .