Hippocampus capensis  Boulenger, 1900

Knysna seahorse
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Hippocampus capensis
Picture by Lourie, S.A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Boulenger.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 30915).   Temperate; 33°S - 34°S

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 5.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.1 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 31848); common length : 7.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4281)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-18; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 3.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southeast Atlantic: endemic to South Africa. Hippocampus capensis has the smallest known range of any seahorse and was the first to be assessed as threatened on the IUCN Red List, in 1994. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in bays and estuaries among submerged vegetation; diurnal (Ref. 4281, 30915). Can tolerate salinities from 1-59 ppt (Ref. 30915). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Length type refers to Height (= from top of coronet to the tip of straightened tail).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

  Endangered (EN) (B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv)c(ii)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv)c(ii))

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00160 - 0.01085), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=1; Fec=7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.