Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osteoglossiformes
(Bony tongues) > Osteoglossidae
Etymology: Osteoglossum: Greek, osteon = bone + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 24°C - 30°C (Ref. 1672)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 50892); max. published weight: 6.0 kg (Ref. 72380)
Body covered with very big scales; dorsal and anal fins almost fused with the caudal fin; 2 barbels at the extremity of the lower jaw; adult silvery, juvenile with blue glints and a yellow-orange bar (Ref. 12225).
South America: Amazon River basin, Rupununi and Oyapock Rivers.
Is an omnivore with a tendency to feed on fish at the surface. The superior position of the mouth allows it to capture its prey while swimming from below. Also jumps out of the water to feed on large insects (Coleoptera; Ref. 27548). It is capable of adapting to environments with low oxygen levels (Ref. 12225).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
The male carries eggs, larvae and early juveniles (alevinos) in his mouth.
Ferraris, C.J. Jr., 2003. Osteoglossidae (Arowanas). p. 30. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 50892)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7656 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.48 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .