Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Pseudobalistes: Greek, pseudes = false + Greek, ballo = to throw (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 50 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 34°N - 34°S, 27°E - 124°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9770)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 4420) and east through Indonesia to the Tuamoto Islands, north to southern Japan.
Inhabits coastal to inner reefs and estuaries, often in silty habitats (Ref. 48637). Found on lagoon slope and floor (Ref. 30573), also coral reefs. Generally solitary or in pairs (Ref. 4420). Young form small aggregations when common while adults are usually seen solitary, except when nesting and males congregate on certain sand flats adjacent to reefs (Ref. 48637). Feeds on tips of coral branches, gastropods, crustaceans, foraminiferans, and tunicates (Ref. 1602) and also on sea urchins (Ref. 9770). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Nest-guarding females are aggressive (Ref. 9770). Also caught with drive-in nets. Marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9770). Ciguatoxic in certain areas (Ref. 37816).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 1602)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01248 - 0.05291), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.49; Fec=430,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .