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Paracanthurus hepatus  (Linnaeus, 1766)

Palette surgeonfish
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Paracanthurus hepatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Paracanthurus hepatus (Palette surgeonfish)
Paracanthurus hepatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Acanthurinae
Etymology: Paracanthurus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 40 m (Ref. 1602), usually 10 - 40 m (Ref. 27115).   Tropical; 24°C - 26°C (Ref. 27115); 30°N - 30°S, 32°E - 170°W

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 19-20; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 18 - 19.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: East Africa, including the Mascarene Islands (Ref. 37792) to Kiribati, north to southern Japan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef, New Caledonia, and Samoa.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occur in clear, current-swept terraces of seaward reefs. Observed in loose aggregations 1 or 2 meters above the bottom; juveniles and subadults typical in groups near isolated Pocillopora eydouxi coral heads and when alarmed hide themselves tightly among the branches (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed on zooplankton and occasionally on algae (Ref. 9710, 48637, 27115, 83665). Relatively uncommon and highly localized (Ref. 1602, 9710). Very popular and hardy aquarium fish. Anterolateral glandular groove with venom gland (Ref. 57406).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Randall, John E. | Collaborators

Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 57406)




Human uses

Aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01107 - 0.04526), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.