Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes
(Salmons) > Salmonidae
(Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salmo: Latin, salmo, Plinius = salmon (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate
Europe: Lake Kezenoi-am (formerly Eizenam) (Daghestan) in northern Caucasus, Russia. Introduced in 1963 in Lake Mochokh (Daghestan), probably established.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 113 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); max. published weight: 17.0 kg (Ref. 59043)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Distinguished from congeners in Caspian Sea basin by having the following unique characters: 16-21 short and broad gill rakers, without denticles, in large individuals sometimes slightly expanded at tip; maxilla not reaching posterior margin of eye; and bright coloration comprising of 10-30 relatively large (6-7 mm in diameter) carmine red spots above lateral line, small black spots on back, red spots on dorsal, upper caudal lobe, and adipose fins (Ref. 59043).
Inhabits mountain lake (Lake Kezenoi-am) with altitude of 1870 m above sea level, with a maximum depth of 74 m, temperature about 5° C below 20 m and 5-18° C in upper layers in summer, covered by ice in winter, high oxygen concentrations down to bottom throughout the year and low plankton density. This was the only fish inhabiting the lake prior to the introduction of Gobio holurus and Squalius cephalus. Young juveniles feed predominantly on gammarids, chironomid larvae; larger juveniles and adults prey on molluscs, benthic invertebrates and fry; largest individuals are mostly piscivorous, especially since the introduction of Gobio holurus. Spawns in lake, close to underwater springs. Large-sized individuals probably undertake migration to tributaries. Spawning extends over almost entire year. Threatened due to the introduction of Squalius cephalus, which feeds on its fry (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bogutskaya, N.G. and A.M. Naseka, 2002. An overview of nonindigenous fishes in inland waters of Russia. Proc. Zool. Inst. Russ. Acad. Sci. 296:21-30. (Ref. 45022)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00473 - 0.02214), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .