Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic. Subtropical
Eastern Indian Ocean: southwestern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33839)
Forms schools in shallow coastal waters.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gomon, M.F., C.J.M. Glover and R.H. Kuiter (eds.), 1994. The fishes of Australia's south coast. State Print, Adelaide. 992 p. (Ref. 33839)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.4 - 20.8, mean 18 (based on 22 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7656 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01076 - 0.06142), b=2.97 (2.76 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .