Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Chlorophthalmidae
Etymology: Chlorophthalmus: Greek, chloros = green + Greek, ophthlamos = eye (Ref. 45335). More on author: Alcock.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 265 - 458 m (Ref. 58018). Deep-water
Western Indian Ocean: southern Indonesia (off the south coast of Java) and SW Thailand to India (off Chennai, Tuticorin and Kerala), the Gulf of Aden and off the coast of Somalia. Records from the Philippines, the South China Sea and elsewhere in the western Pacific Ocean are misidentifications.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 95053); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9133)
(total): 10 - 11;
soft rays: 9 - 10. This species is distinguished by the following set of characteristics: lower jaw terminating in a distinct forwardly projecting horizontal plate with strong, spine-like processes directed forward from the plate’s corners; silvery grey body with numerous minute black spots and traces of broad darker crossbars; black colour at base of anterior dorsal fin spines and distal parts of dorsal fins; adipose fin tiny with numerous black spots; caudal fin black; 3.5 scales above lateral line; 3 rows of cheek scales; very large head, 34.3-40·1% SL; large eye, 29·8-40·8% HL; long pectoral fin, extending to beyond dorsal fin base, 21.7-26.2% SL; body silvery grey with minute black dots and traces of broad darker crossbars; operculum dark dorsally, silvery ventrally (Ref. 95053).
Found offshore (Ref. 30573).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bineesh, K.K., K.V. Akhilesh, M.F. Gomon, E.M. Abdussamad, N.G.K. Pillai and A. Gopalakrishnan, 2014. Redescription of Chlorophthalmus corniger, a senior synonym of Chlorophthalmus bicornis (Family: Chlorophthalmidae). J. Fish Biol. 84(2):513-522. (Ref. 95053)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.4 - 15.9, mean 11.8 (based on 61 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00195 (0.00095 - 0.00401), b=3.00 (2.82 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .