Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Labridae
Etymology: Labrus: Greek, labros = furious (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 5292), usually 2 - 30 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 68°N - 20°N, 32°W - 30°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 65.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); max. published weight: 4.4 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 29 years (Ref. 6843)
Body rather massive. Mouth small with thick lips and large conical teeth. Coloration very variable, brownish and greenish predominating (Ref. 35388).
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco, including Madeira, the Azores and the Canary Islands. Doubtful records from Mediterranean, Adriatic and Marmara seas (Ref. 4742).
Adults are found in littoral (10-20 m) zone around rocks, offshore reefs, and seaweed. Young often in intertidal areas. All are born females and change sex when they are 4-14 years old (Ref. 35388). One (or more) female spawns in nest of algae, built by male in a crevice. Feed on crustaceans and mollusks (Ref. 4742). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00541 - 0.01765), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.1; tmax=29; tm=2-9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .