Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 36°N - 36°S, 20°E - 155°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56281); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 56281)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Throughout Micronesia.
Usually solitary or in pairs in coral-rich areas of reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs to a depth of over 15 m. Juveniles inshore. In pairs or traveling in small groups (Ref. 48636). Feed on octocorallian and scleractinian coral polyps. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Easy to maintain in the aquarium. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02291 (0.01472 - 0.03565), b=3.00 (2.87 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K = 0.14, tmax = 20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .