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Bolbometopon muricatum  (Valenciennes, 1840)

Green humphead parrotfish
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Image of Bolbometopon muricatum (Green humphead parrotfish)
Bolbometopon muricatum
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Scaridae (Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Bolbometopon: Greek, bolbos-ou = onion + Greek, metopon = brow (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 90102).   Tropical; 30°N - 24°S

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 70.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9793); max. published weight: 46.0 kg (Ref. 2334)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9. Median predorsal scales 2 to 4 (may be obscured by hump); scales on cheek scale rows 1(4-6), 2(3-6), 3(1-2) (Ref. 9793). Sometimes confused with the humphead wrasse or other 'humphead' parrotfishes (Ref. 1602). Unlike the wrasse, it has a vertical head profile, and unlike other parrotfishes, it is uniformly covered except for the leading edge of the head which is often light green to pink, and has a nodular outer surface to its beak (Ref. 1602). The primary phase is a dull gray with scattered white spots, gradually becoming uniformly dark green (Ref. 1602).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa and the Line Islands, north to the Yaeyama and Wake islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Juveniles found in lagoons; adults in clear outer lagoon and seaward reefs up to depths of at least 30 m (Ref. 9710). Usually in small groups. Feeds on benthic algae, live corals (Ref. 9710) and shellfishes (Ref. 58784). May ram its head against corals to facilitate feeding (Ref. 9710). Sleeps in caves and often in shipwrecks at night (Ref. 48636). The largest and wariest of the parrotfishes. Vulnerable to overfishing (Ref. 9710).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Westneat, Mark | Collaborators

Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2d)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

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FAO areas
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Ecology
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Common names
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Eggs
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Morphometrics
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00653 - 0.03056), b=3.04 (2.86 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.7   ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.