Epinephelus chlorostigma  (Valenciennes, 1828)

Brownspotted grouper
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Epinephelus chlorostigma   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Brownspotted grouper)
Epinephelus chlorostigma
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 4 - 300 m (Ref. 11888).   Tropical; 37°N - 34°S, 28°E - 169°W (Ref. 5222)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 28.0, range 23 - 31 cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4787); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 7.0 kg (Ref. 4787); max. reported age: 29 years (Ref. 42001)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-18; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Live color whitish, with small dark brown spots on head, body, and fins except ventrally on head, thorax, and lower abdomen. Can assume a transient color phase of 3-4 rows of very large round dark spots on top of the small-spot pattern. 96-125 scales in longitudinal series. Pyloric caeca 26-52 (Ref. 04787); characterized further by having ctenoid body scales, except cycloid scales on nape, thorax, parts of ventral abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.3 in SL; truncate to slightly emarginate caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.7-2.4 in head length (Ref. 90102); interorbital slightly convex; preopercle angle rounded, 4-7 enlarged serrae at angle below a slight notch; upper edge of operculum straight; posterior nostril not noticeably larger than anterior nostril; maxilla reaches about to vertical at rear edge of eye; scaly maxilla, low step on posterior part of ventral edge; 2-4 rows of teeth in midlateral part of lower jaw, inner ones about twice the size of outer teeth (Ref. 089707).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to Natal, South Africa and eastward to the western Pacific, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Records from Persian Gulf are apparently misidentifications of Epinephelus polylepis. Not verified from the Comoros, continental shelf between Oman and Cambodia, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found over a wide range of habitats like seagrass beds and outer reef slopes (Ref. 5213); in the South China Sea, it is also found on mud bottoms. Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (mainly stomatopods and crabs). Sexual transition from female to male occurs between 35-45 cm, but not all females change sex. Forms spawning aggregations (Ref. 55367). E. chlorostigma is closely related and very similar to E. polylepis and E. gabriellae which seem to replace it in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Solitary (Ref 90102).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00735 - 0.01879), b=3.03 (2.89 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.67 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.17-0.19; tmax=29).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.