Sphyrna tudes  (Valenciennes, 1822)

Smalleye hammerhead
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Sphyrna tudes
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; benthopelagic, usually ? - 12 m (Ref. 244).   Subtropical; 46°N - 57°S, 73°W - 37°E (Ref. 244)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 134 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244); 148.0 cm TL (female)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southwest Atlantic: Venezuela to Argentina (Ref. 58839). Also Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Pacific (Ref. 7251).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A little-known inshore shark of the continental shelf, found down to at least 12 m depth. Feeds on small bony fishes, including sea catfish and grunts, but also newborn scalloped hammerheads, swimming crabs, squids, and shrimp. Viviparous with a yolk-sac placenta; number of young probably 6 to 9 per litter (Ref. 244).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, with yolk-sac plazenta; number of young probably 6 - 9 per litter. Size at birth about 30 cm.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2ad+3d+4ad)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
FAO(Publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00295 (0.00125 - 0.00696), b=3.17 (2.97 - 3.37), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.