Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 23°C - 27°C (Ref. 12468), preferred ?
Africa: basins of the Senegal, Gambia, Niger (including Benue), Volta and Chad (Ref. 57223). Also in the Densu system (Ghana) and Kwa Ibo (Nigeria) (Ref. 57223).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 49.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57223)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions; post-orbital length at least 60% of snout length; maxillary barbels longer than head, unbranched, without tubercles and lacking a distinct basal membrane; outer and inner mandibular barbels with numerous long and simple ramifications; mandibular teeth numbering 19-28 (28 in the lectotype); denticulations of pectoral-fin spines weaker and more dense on outer than on inner margin; dorsal-fin spine smooth anteriorly, except for a few apical denticles; humeral process twice as long as deep, granulose, pointed and slightly keeled ventrally; adipose fin well developed and distinctly separated from rayed dorsal fin; sides covered with big black ocellated spots (with a pale centre); no black spot behind dorsal fin (Ref. 57223).
Coloration: colour rather light; sides and adipose fin marked with large black spots, sometimes with light centres resembling eyespots (ocelli); presence of such ocelli visible particularly in large individuals; adults usually with small spots aligned on caudal fin; speckled pattern extends unto all fins in young specimens, fading subsequently with growth (Ref. 57223).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00902 - 0.03052), b=2.98 (2.82 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .