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Anchoa mitchilli  (Valenciennes, 1848)

Bay anchovy
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Anchoa mitchilli   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Anchoa mitchilli (Bay anchovy)
Anchoa mitchilli
Picture by Howell, W.M./Jenkins, R.L.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Anchoa: Italian ancioa = anchovy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 36 m (Ref. 189).   Subtropical; 42°N - 16°N, 99°W - 72°W (Ref. 189)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 4 - 4.5 cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189); common length : 5.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 23 - 31. Body variable, more slender in northern populations. Snout fairly blunt, a little over 1/2 eye diameter; maxilla long, tip pointed, reaching beyond hind border of pre-operculum, almost to gill opening; panamensis-type gill cover canals. Anal fin rays rarely 28, its origin below unbranched dorsal fin rays. Anus nearer to pelvic fin tips than to anal fin origin.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Casco Bay, Maine south to Florida Keys and westward around the Gulf of Mexico south to Yucatán; not in the West Indies.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

More commonly found in shallow tidal areas with muddy bottoms and brackish waters, tolerating a wide range of salinities (virtually fresh to fully saline or hypersaline). Found only in spring and summer in the tidal portion of the Ochlockonee River, Florida. Feed mostly on Mysis and copepods, also small fishes, gastropods and isopods. Breed off North Carolina from late April to mid-July, perhaps through to August. Used to some extent to make anchovy paste (Ref. 189).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00269 - 0.00893), b=3.13 (2.97 - 3.29), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K>0.30; tmax=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.