Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical; 22°C - 24°C (Ref. 12468), preferred ?; 11°S - 21°S
Africa: Cunene, Okavango, Buzi, Pungwe (Ref. 52193), Zambezi (Ref. 3203, 52193, 95585), Save (Ref. 13337) and Cubango Rivers (Ref. 3203). Absent from the Kafue River (Ref. 7248, 52193, 95585). Also in the Malagarasi, Lake Rukwa (Ref. 27292), lakes Tanganyika and Malawi (Ref. 3203, 52193). In the Congo basin known from the Lindi-Tshopo (Ref. 106290), upper Kasai (middle Congo River basin)(Ref. 2970), Lualaba (Ref. 45434), upper Lualaba (Ref. 2970, 45434) and the Mweru-Luapula-Bangweulu area (Ref. 13337, 95585).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 52193)
soft rays: 23 - 27. Diagnosis: dorsal fin up to 1.5 times anal fin length; dorsal fin origin nearer caudal fin base than tip of snout; origin of dorsal fin in advance of anal fin (Ref. 52193). Chin with fleshy bulge; snout rounded in front of mouth; eye well above mouth (Ref. 4967). Male develops concavity to the margin of the anal fin, whereas that of female is straight; high back, with dorsal fin approximately 1/3 of total fish length, serves to separate it satisfactorily from other mormyrids in Zimbabwe (Ref. 13337).
Nocturnal shoaling species; favors large river channels with a soft bottom and fringing vegetation (Ref. 7248, 52193). Found mainly in sheltered bays, lagoons and swampy areas; occurs also in typical sandy or rocky rivers (Ref. 13337). Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates (Ref. 52193) and insect larvae at night (Ref. 5595). Known to migrate up tributary rivers of Lake Kariba during rainy season, though it is not yet clear whether this is a breeding migration (Ref. 13337). Breeds during summer rainy season; females carry up to 5,000 eggs (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gosse, J.-P., 1984. Mormyridae. p. 63-122. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3203)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00857 - 0.02554), b=2.79 (2.64 - 2.94), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .