Epinephelus cyanopodus  (Richardson, 1846)

Speckled blue grouper
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Epinephelus cyanopodus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Speckled blue grouper)
Epinephelus cyanopodus
Picture by Banks, I.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 150 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 34°N - 36°S, 99°E - 174°W (Ref. 5222)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 64 - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4787); max. published weight: 17.3 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Juveniles are mostly yellow becoming gray with dark spots anteriorly. The gray area increases with increasing size until only the fins remain yellow on individuals of 15 to 20 cm (Ref. 37816).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: southern Japan to southern Queensland and east to Fiji and the islands of Micronesia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Record from Western Australia in the Indian Ocean is dubious. Replaced by Epinephelus flavocaeruleus in the Indian Ocean (Ref. 37816).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Usually found around isolated coral heads in lagoons or bays, but also caught on outer reef area. According to Myers (1989, Ref. 4538) it usually swims out in the open, several meters above the bottom. It is readily caught by anglers at night. Feeds mainly on sand-dwelling fishes and crustaceans such as snake eels and box crabs. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 1602)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01350 (0.00883 - 0.02064), b=3.06 (2.93 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.