Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 160 m (Ref. 5222), usually 20 - 45 m (Ref. 5222). Tropical; 36°N - 34°S, 28°E - 121°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); common length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 30874)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to the Pitcairn Group, north to Japan and Korea, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), southern Queensland (Australia) and Lord Howe Island.
Common in outer reef slopes at depths below 15 m, also occurs in protected bays and lagoons as shallow as 4 m. May also be found down to a depth of 160 m. At Madagascar it feeds night and day on brachyuran crabs, fishes, shrimps, and galatheid crabs (Ref. 6774). In Kenyan waters it feeds on crabs, stomatopods, fishes, ophiuroids, and octopus (Ref. 6448). In the Red Sea, mostly fishes and some crustaceans (mainly crabs) are consumed (Ref. 6699).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01159 (-0.08501 - 0.10820), b=3.02 (2.95 - 3.08), based on LWR estimates for species & genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.16).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .