Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2059)
Africa: basins of the Nile, Chad, Niger, Gambia, Senegal, Volta and coastal basins of Sassandra, Bandama, Comoé, Tano, Pra, Ouémé, Ogun and Sanaga, which seems to represent its southern distributional limit (Ref. 2940, 81282). Also known from the Cross River in Cameroon (Ref. 81639).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2801); max. published weight: 60.00 g (Ref. 3799)
soft rays: 16 - 18. Diagnosis: body depth 3.9-6.2x and head length 3.4-4.7x SL; eye diameter 3.1-4.9x head length (Ref. 2940, 81282). Scale formula 9.5-11.5/48-64/4.5-6.5; 14-16 scales around caudal peduncle; 8 dorsal-fin branched rays; 13-15 anal-fin branched rays (Ref. 2940, 81282, 81639). Usually less than 15 vertical bars on sides; known from the large Nilo-Sudanese basins (Ref. 2940, 81282). Round spot on caudal peduncle (Ref. 81639).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lévêque, C., 1990. Cyprinidae. p. 269-361. In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest. Tome I. Coll. Faune Tropicale n° XXVIII. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, and O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris, 384 p. (Ref. 2940)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00429 - 0.01116), b=3.12 (2.98 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .