Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 27 - 364 m (Ref. 5951), usually 36 - 91 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate; 54°N - 37°N
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 9988); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 6286)
Northwest Atlantic: southern Labrador, Canada to Chesapeake Bay, USA.
Adults inhabit sandy to muddy bottoms (Ref. 7251). Prefer depths of 37 to 82 m at temperatures of 3-5°C (Ref. 6263). Feed mainly on polychaete worms and amphipods, shrimps, isopods and other crustaceans and occasionally small fish such as sand lance and capelin (Ref. 12232). Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00470 - 0.02030), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (rm=0.69; K=0.3; tm=2-6; tmax=12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .