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Reinhardtius hippoglossoides  (Walbaum, 1792)

Greenland halibut
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Reinhardtius hippoglossoides   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Greenland halibut)
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides
Picture by Dolgov, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Reinhardtius: Because of Johannes Christopher H. Reinhardt, Danish zoologist, studied under Vahl and Cuvier, professor in Kobanhavn in 1813 (1776-1845) (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 2000 m (Ref. 6793), usually 500 - 1000 m (Ref. 6263).   Boreal; -1°C - 4°C (Ref. 43586); 79°N - 33°N, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 54862)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 62.5, range 65 - 80 cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56370); 130.0 cm TL (female); common length : 56.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55110); max. published weight: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); max. published weight: 7.0 kg; max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 3561)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 83-108; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 62 - 79; Vertebrae: 60 - 64. Dorsal origin behind posterior edge of upper eye. Caudal slightly forked to truncate. Pectorals small.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal: In arctic and temperate waters; northern hemisphere. Sea of Japan off Honshu north to Shishmaref, Alaska in the Chukchi Sea, throughout the Aleutian Islands, and southeast to northern Baja California, Mexico. North Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Spitsbergen (Svalbard Islands) and the Barents Sea south to Ireland. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Often caught pelagically (Ref. 4705). Adults prefer bottom temperatures of -0.5°C to 6.0°C (Ref. 5951). Epibenthic (Ref. 58426). Feed on crustaceans, fishes (Ref. 4705, 6885), eelpouts, capelin, redfishes, deep sea prawns and other bottom invertebrates (Ref. 35388). Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Utilized dried or salted and frozen; can be steamed and fried (Ref. 9988). Size of the Greenland halibut collected from 400-599 m deep in eastern Bering Sea, ranged from 9 to 99 cm FL with a mean of 56 cm (Ref. 55110).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Collaborators

Nielsen, J.G., 1986. Pleuronectidae. p. 1299-1307. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4705)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00377 - 0.00636), b=3.12 (3.04 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.07-0.10; tm=7-12; tmax=30; Fec=6,800).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.