Hippoglossus stenolepis  Schmidt, 1904

Pacific halibut
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Hippoglossus stenolepis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)
Hippoglossus stenolepis
Picture by Archipelago Marine Research Ltd.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Hippoglossus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335);  stenolepis: From the Greek hippos (horse), glossa (tounge), steno (narrow), lepis, (scale). In 1904, a Russian scientist by the name of P.J. Schmidt first proposed the scientific name based on anatomical differences such as scale shape, pectoral fin length, and body shape which he thought distinguished it from the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). (Ref. 94075).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 1200 m (Ref. 50550).   Temperate; 73°N - 42°N, 138°E - 123°W (Ref. 54557)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 258 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); 267.0 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 363.0 kg (Ref. ); max. reported age: 55 years (Ref. 55701)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 90-106; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 69 - 80; Vertebrae: 49 - 51. Dorsal origin above anterior part of pupil in upper eye, generally low, higher in middle. Caudal spread and slightly lunate. Pectorals small.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North Pacific: Hokkaido, Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk to the southern Chukchi Sea and Point Camalu, Baja California, Mexico.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on various types of bottoms (Ref. 2850). Young are found near shore, moving out to deeper waters as they grow older (Ref. 6885). Older individuals typically move from deeper water along the edge of the continental shelf where they spend the winter, to shallow coastal water (27-274 m) for the summer (Ref. 28499). Feed on fishes, crabs, clams, squids, and other invertebrates (Ref. 6885). Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). The US North Pacific halibut fishery of this species has been certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (http://www.msc.org/) as well-managed and sustainable (http://www.msc.org/html/content_1258.htm).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Collaborators

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00449 - 0.01117), b=3.10 (2.96 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (rm=0.2; K=0.05; tm=5-20; tmax=55).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.