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Psettodes erumei  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Indian halibut
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Image of Psettodes erumei (Indian halibut)
Psettodes erumei
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Psettodidae (Psettodids)
Etymology: Psettodes: Greek, psetta = grouper + Greek, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 9792), usually 20 - 50 m (Ref. 9792).   Tropical; 26°N - 21°S, 43°E - 156°E (Ref. 54739)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 37 - 39 cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6006); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 9.0 kg (Ref. 1468)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9 - 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 38-45; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 33 - 43; Vertebrae: 23 - 25. Body oval and flat, but thicker than in most other flatfishes. Mouth large with strong teeth; maxillary extends well beyond hind edge of lower eye; both eyes on left or right side; upper eye lying immediately below dorsal edge; gill rakers not developed. Dorsal fin origin well posterior to eyes; anterior fin rays spinous; lateral line almost straight. Color usually brown or grey, sometimes with 4 broad, dark crossbars. Dorsal, anal and caudal fin tips black. Blind side occasionally partially colored. (Other sources of morphological data: Refs. 591, 529, 4416, 5997 and 6000).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Japan and Australia.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 9796, 48637). Usually deeply burried in the substrate during the day, but out and hunting at night (Ref. 48637). Often swims in an upright position (Ref. 9796). Mainly piscivorous (Ref. 5986). Mainly sold fresh (Ref. 5213); also utilized smoked and frozen (Ref. 9987). Processed into fish flour (Ref. 6040).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Studies in Porto Novo, India (Refs. 5993 & 5997) show that the sex ratio significantly differ from 1:1, but the reports are ambiguous as to which sex predominates.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Collaborators

Nielsen, J.G., 1984. Psettodidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3485)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
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Ecology
Diet
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Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
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Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
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References
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Aquaculture profile
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | OsteoBase(skull, spine) | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00494 - 0.00968), b=3.10 (3.00 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.26-0.38; tm=3-4; Fec=300,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
high
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.