Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 360 m (Ref. 50550), usually 50 - 100 m (Ref. 56473). Polar; 1°C - 4°C (Ref. 56473)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 14 - 16 cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56473); common length : 21.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56473); max. published weight: 500.00 g (Ref. 56473); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 56473)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.1 - 2.3, mean 0.9 °C (based on 98 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00329 - 0.01007), b=3.02 (2.87 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .