Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Trachinidae
Etymology: Trachinus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 150 m (Ref. 6790), usually 30 - 60 m (Ref. 6790). Subtropical
Eastern Atlantic: Gibraltar to the Gulf of Guinea; probably further south. Known from the Mediterranean (Ref. 231).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6790)
Found on sand and mud bottoms on the continental shelf from shoreline to a depth of about 150 m (Ref. 6790). Oviparous (Ref. 4675). Eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4675).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roux, C., 1990. Trachinidae. p. 893-895. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6790)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 24.4, mean 17.3 (based on 140 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5059 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00486 - 0.01423), b=3.01 (2.86 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .