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Pteromylaeus bovinus  (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)

Bull ray
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Pteromylaeus bovinus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pteromylaeus bovinus (Bull ray)
Pteromylaeus bovinus
Picture by Wirtz, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Myliobatinae
Etymology: Pteromylaeus: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek, mylio = mill, grinder (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - 150 m (Ref. 6808).   Subtropical; 44°N - 35°S, 19°W - 36°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 90.0, range 35 - 148 cm
Max length : 222.0 cm WD (female); common length : 150 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 57025); max. published weight: 116.0 kg (Ref. 85836)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Long, flat, rounded snout like a duck's bill; head thick and pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners; upper or lower jaw; usually with 7 rows of flat teeth (Ref. 5578). Light brown with several pale blue-grey stripes (may be absent) dorsally, white ventrally (Ref. 5578).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Portugal and Morocco to Angola, including the Mediterranean, Madeira and the Canary Islands; then from Saldanha Bay to Natal (South Africa) and southern Mozambique (Ref. 5578).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal tropical and warm temperate waters, occasionally offshore. Sometimes found in small groups (Ref. 5578). Feed on bottom-living crustaceans and mollusks. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449), aplacental (Ref. 57025). Prized angling fish, often released (Ref. 5578). Flesh highly esteemed (Ref. 3965).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Schneider, W., 1990. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.57 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.