Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Rivulidae
Etymology: xiphidius: The name xiphidus meaning sword in Latin was given because of the characteristic longitudinal black band which decorates the sides, the snout up to the caudal peduncle in the female and the caudal fin in the male (Ref. 27188).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 6.5; dH range: 6 - ?; non-migratory. Tropical; 22°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060), preferred ?
South America: Oyapock River basin and adjacent coastal drainages.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35237); 3.0 cm TL (female); common length : 4.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27139); max. reported age: 3 years (Ref. 35237)
Especially found in very shallow parts of small brooks where water is brown and rich in tannin and the substrate consists of decaying vegetation (Ref. 35237). Stays in the shaded areas of small, slow flowing rivers, sympatric with R. geayi, R. agilae, R. lungi, and R. cladophorus. Sexual differentiation is possible at 4 months of age (Ref. 27188). Not a seasonal killifish (Ref. 27139). Reproduction is not so prolific; is considered difficult to maintain in the aquarium. Sexual differentiation is possible at 3 months but reproduction occurs for the first time at around one year (Ref. 35237). If pursued by a predator this species may jump on land where it rests for a few seconds before re-entering the water (Ref. 35237).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs measure 1.6 mm diameter. Sexes can be distinguished at about 3 months of age. Dominant males are followed by 1-3 females.
Costa, W.J.E.M., 2003. Rivulidae (South American Annual Fishes). p. 526-548. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36579)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00355 (0.00145 - 0.00867), b=3.16 (2.94 - 3.38), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=1; tmax=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .