Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Sphaeramia: Greek, sphaira = ball + Greek, amia = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 23°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4329); common length : 8.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Kiribati, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia; Belau to eastern Caroline and Mariana Islands in Micronesia.
Restricted to coastal waters, forming small aggregations among mangroves, rocks, debris, or piers of shallow sheltered shorelines. Feeds at night (early evening and just before day break), primarily on planktonic crustaceans. Courtship and spawning occur fortnightly (shortly before new moons and full moons). Eggs are incubated by the male for about 8 days. Larval phase pelagic. Sexual maturity is attained at 7 cm by males and at 6 cm by females (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Courtship and spawning occur on a semi-lunar cycle, shortly before full and new moons (Ref. 37816). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205). Are mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Males incubate up to 12,000 eggs for a period of about 8 days (Ref. 37816). After the pelagic larval phase, juveniles settle and grow at a rate of 3 to 6 mm per month (Ref. 37816).
Gon, O., 1986. Apogonidae. p. 546-561. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4329)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00706 - 0.03245), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .