Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sparidae
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 30 - 130 m (Ref. 7349). Subtropical, preferred 17°C (Ref. 107945); 47°N - 28°N, 19°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal, Morocco, and Canary Islands including the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6518); 21.0 cm SL (female); common length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Adults are found in the neritic zone, commonly over Posidonia beds and on sand or muddy bottoms (Ref. 6518). They are distributed at depths of 30m to 90m (Ref. 56124). Feed on zooplankton. Are protogynous hermaphrodites.
Sex reversal occurs at lengths over 10.9 cm TL in the northeastern Mediterranean (Ref. 93202). Also Ref. 103751.
Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.01023 - 0.01230), b=3.03 (3.00 - 3.06), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24; tmax=5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .