Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Zoarcidae
(Eelpouts) > Zoarcinae
Etymology: Zoarces: Greek, zoarkes, -es = that gives life (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 388 m (Ref. 58426). Temperate; ? - 10°C (Ref. 35432); 58°N - 37°N
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 5.4 kg (Ref. 4926); max. reported age: 18 years (Ref. 796)
Northwest Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Delaware, USA.
Benthic; feeds on worms, crustaceans, molluscs, sea squirts, sea urchins and fishes (Ref. 58426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are laid in gelatinous masses guarded by parents (Ref. 35432).
Anderson, M.E., 1994. Systematics and osteology of the Zoarcidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. 60:120 p. (Ref. 11954)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00157 - 0.00964), b=3.11 (2.89 - 3.33), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08-0.11; tmax=18).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .