Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Acanthuridae
(Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Acanthurinae
Etymology: Acanthurus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Randall.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 20°N - 25°S, 35°E - 172°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 52229)
soft rays: 23 - 24. Color in life dark brown; orange brown from pectoral base downward; caudal spine socket bright orange; orange blotch before and behind pupil; caudal fin base with a white band. Anterior gill rakers 20-23, posterior 24-28. Large caudal spine, 2.2 - 4.4 in head.
Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique (Ref. 41878). Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles (Ref. 10685), Philippines, Indonesia and Great Barrier Reef; recently found in Maldives. Reported from Malaysia (Ref. 5756) and Samoa (Ref. 592).
Adults inhabit shallow reefs, both in lagoons and outer reef areas. They frequently move in groups. Juveniles found between soft corals in lagoons at depths of up to 2 m (Ref. 9710, 48637). Adults in groups, often mixed with other similar species (Ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1956. A revision of the surgeonfish genus Acanthurus. Pac. Sci. 10(2):159-235. (Ref. 1920)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.01048 - 0.04565), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=30; K=0.67).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .