Sillago ciliata  Cuvier, 1829

Sand sillago
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Sillago ciliata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sillago ciliata (Sand sillago)
Sillago ciliata
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sillaginidae (Smelt-whitings)
Etymology: Sillago: From a locality in Australia .   More on author: Cuvier.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range ? - 46 m (Ref. 6335), usually 20 - 22 m.   Tropical; 9°S - 45°S, 142°E - 170°E (Ref. 6205)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 24.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 51.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6205); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 6390); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 1254)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-18; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 15 - 17; Vertebrae: 32 - 34. The shape of the swim bladder is not distinguishable from that of S. analis. Anterior part of the swim bladder with rudimentary tubules projecting anteriorly and a series laterally that diminish in size and become sawtooth-like posteriorly. The coloration of adult specimens is uniform, without darker bars or blotches. A dark spot is present at the base of the pectoral fin in younger individuals.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: east coast of Australia from Cape York (rare) and the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland to eastern Victoria, Ulverstone on northeast coast of Tasmania; Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Woodlark Islands, and Papua New Guinea. Bleeker's records (Ref. 1502, 1843) from Batavia and Java were in error (Ref. 4899).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

An onshore schooling species occurring on coastal beaches, sandbars, and surf zones as well as open bays, estuaries, coastal lakes (Ref. 6205), and rivers as far as tidal limits (Ref. 6390). Keep away from shore when older. Live almost exclusively on sandy ground. Juveniles and adolescents are abundant in shallow waters of rivers and creeks, over seagrass beds and in mangroves (Ref. 6223), although they tend to move into deeper water as they grow older (Ref. 6390). Larvae are present in river mouths and mangrove areas most of the year (Ref. 27634). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Feed mostly on polychaetes and crustaceans. Also caught using tunnel nets (Ref. 6205).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Sand whiting probably spawn twice each season (Ref. 1254, 27633). Spawning occurs at peak high tide, at night, and 1-2 days before the new moon (Ref. 6390).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

McKay, R.J., 1992. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00351 - 0.02061), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.39; tm=2-3; tmax=22; Fec=31,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.