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Phalloceros caudimaculatus  (Hensel, 1868)

Dusky millions fish
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Native range | All suitable habitat
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Phalloceros caudimaculatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Dusky millions fish)
Phalloceros caudimaculatus
Male picture by Sazima, I.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae (Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Phalloceros: Greek, phallos = penis + Greek, keras = horn (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 9 - 19; non-migratory.   Tropical; 20°C - 24°C (Ref. 1672)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil southward to Uruguay and Argentina (Ref. 9086). Introduced mainly for mosquito control (Ref. 1739). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26681); 6.0 cm TL (female)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-9. Dorsal fin short; pectoral fin small, not reaching back to level of pelvic fin bases; body and fins covered with a profusion of black patches; tip of gonopodium of male with a distinctly downturned hook (Ref 54372).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits swamps and drains of Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia (Ref. 44894). Omnivorous.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

After about 24 days gestation, 10 to 50 young are born.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans




Human uses

Aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00289 - 0.01579), b=3.13 (2.94 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .