Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Siganidae
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 48637), usually 0 - 15 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 19°C - 38°C (Ref. 1827); 30°N - 30°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1419); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9813)
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 13. Body bluish white; head brown to brownish or golden yellow with irregular blue lines. Preopercular angle 91°-102°; strong overlapping scales cover cheeks; midline of thorax scaled, not pelvic ridges. Anterior nostril with low flange, broadened slightly posteriorly. Spines stout, blunt or pungent, and venomous.
Indo-West Pacific: India, Sri Lanka, Andaman Islands, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Belau [=Palau], Guam, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Vanuatu, ?New Caledonia, ?Western Australia, ?Pohnpei, Caroline Islands, ?Ebon Island and Marshall Islands.
Juveniles live among mangroves then move out to lagoon and coastal reefs as they mature. Forms schools. Feeds on algae growing on seagrasses, mangrove roots and rocks. Adults congregate inshore in groups of several hundreds to spawn in summer. Spawning is by pairs; sticky eggs laid on the bottom. Its very high quality flesh commands premium prices (Ref. 9813). Adults on coastal reefs, subject to strong currents (Ref. 48637). This species can tolerate very low salinities (2 ppt) and temperatures up to 38 C (Ref. 37816).
Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: likely future use; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00609 - 0.04520), b=3.00 (2.76 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .