Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Umbrina: Latin, umbra, -ae = shadow, in the sense of phantom; due to its quick movements (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; 43°N - 36°S, 19°W - 56°E (Ref. 56870)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11228); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3490)
Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: western Mediterranean and Gibraltar (Ref. 3593) to the Cape and along the east coast of Africa to the Persian Gulf. Not yet recorded from Namibia but may eventually be found there (Ref. 27121).
Coastal species (Ref. 27000). Inhabits rocky and sandy bottoms (Ref. 2683). Juveniles may occur in littoral areas, but not in estuaries. Feeds on shrimps, worms and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates (Ref. 4780). Sold fresh (Ref. 3490).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00416 - 0.01911), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.42 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .