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Gnathanodon speciosus  (Forsskål, 1775)

Golden trevally
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Gnathanodon speciosus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gnathanodon speciosus (Golden trevally)
Gnathanodon speciosus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Gnathanodon: Greek, gnathos = jaw + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 2 m (Ref. 58302).   Tropical; 30°N - 30°S

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 32.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 75.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9283); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 30874)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 18-20; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 15 - 17.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific. Eastern Pacific: southwestern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico and Gulf of California to Ecuador (Ref. 9283).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur in deep lagoon and seaward reefs where they feed by rooting for crustaceans and fossorial invertebrates in the sand but they also feed on small fishes (Ref. 9710, 90102). Small juveniles live among the tentacles of jellyfish (Ref. 9710). Adults form schools and are also noted for their behavior to closely swim around sharks and other large fishes, and also follow divers (Ref. 10361). Juveniles particularly display this piloting behavior to gain protection from likely predators (Ref. 9710, 90102). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are used in the aquarium trade.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Collaborators

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1995. Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 4795)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=-1.68000 (nan - nan), b=3.00 (2.85 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.14-0.53).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.