Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Leiostomus: Greek, leios = smooth + Greek,stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 60 m (Ref. 10325). Subtropical; 43°N - 19°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 450.00 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 12193)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts to northern Mexico; absent in southern Florida.
Found usually over sandy or muddy bottoms in coastal waters to about 60 m depth. Occurs in nursery and feeding grounds in river estuaries during summer and fall. Juveniles often stay in the estuarine waters throughout the year. Feeds mainly on worms, small crustaceans and organic detritus. A small specimen of this species was caught in Tokyo Bay, Japan, probably brought in with the ballast water of a ship (Ref. 10325).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: occasionally
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00491 - 0.01545), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.4; tmax=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .