Lactophrys bicaudalis  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Spotted trunkfish
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Image of Lactophrys bicaudalis (Spotted trunkfish)
Lactophrys bicaudalis
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Ostraciidae (Boxfishes)
Etymology: Lactophrys: Latin, concerned with milk + Greek, ophrys = eyebrow (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 50 m (Ref. 11227).   Subtropical; 30°N - 33°S

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Whitish with numerous small black spots on carapace, caudal peduncle and caudal fin; lips whitish; bases of dorsal, anal and pectoral fins blackish; large adults with black spots missing from three small areas in a diagonal row anteriorly on body at level of eye, appearing as three white spots (Ref. 13442).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Florida (USA), Bahamas, and southern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Ascension Island (Ref. 3696).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in clear water around coral reefs. Sometimes under ledges and near small holes (Ref. 9710). Feeds on a variety of small bottom invertebrates such as mollusks, crustaceans, starfishes, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sessile tunicates, sea grasses (Ref. 3696), algae, crabs and brittle stars (Ref. 13442). Toxins released when excited kills other fishes (Ref. 5521). Probably marketed fresh locally (Ref. 3696).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Matsuura, Keiichi | Collaborators

Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)




Human uses

Aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.