Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 550 m (Ref. 6793). Temperate, preferred 9°C (Ref. 107945); 66°N - 26°N, 170°W - 110°W
Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea to Bahia San Cristobal, central Baja California, Mexico (Ref. 27436). Hybridizes with Platichthys stellatus - the hybrid, called Inopsetta ischyra, may be found from the Bering Sea to San Francisco, California, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 30 - 32 cm
Max length : 49.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6885); 57.0 cm TL (female); common length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 55701)
Adults inhabit sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 4925). Young occur in intertidal areas. Feed on small crustaceans, marine worms, brittle stars and small mollusks (Ref. 6885). Spawning adults make extensive migrations (Ref. 6885).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00360 - 0.00963), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; tmax=22; K=0.24; Fec=150,000).
Prior r = 0.47, 2 SD range = 0.27 - 0.83, log(r) = -0.76, SD log(r) = 0.28, Based on: 1 M, 1 K, 5 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .