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Parophrys vetulus  Girard, 1854

English sole
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Parophrys vetulus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Parophrys vetulus (English sole)
Parophrys vetulus
Picture by Østergaard, T.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
More on author: Girard.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 550 m (Ref. 6793).   Temperate; 66°N - 26°N, 170°W - 110°W

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 30 - 32 cm
Max length : 49.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6885); 57.0 cm TL (female); common length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 55701)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 72-92; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 45 - 70; Vertebrae: 41 - 44. Dorsal origin above middle of upper eye. Pectorals inclined to be pointed.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea to Bahia San Cristobal, central Baja California, Mexico (Ref. 27436). Hybridizes with Platichthys stellatus - the hybrid, called Inopsetta ischyra, may be found from the Bering Sea to San Francisco, California, USA.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 4925). Young occur in intertidal areas. Feed on small crustaceans, marine worms, brittle stars and small mollusks (Ref. 6885). Spawning adults make extensive migrations (Ref. 6885).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Collaborators

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | Public aquariums | PubMed | RFE Identification | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00408 - 0.01121), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; tmax=22; K=0.24; Fec=150,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.