Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 79 m (Ref. 9330). Subtropical; 37°N - 22°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 63.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9330); max. published weight: 4.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
Eastern Pacific: Monterey Bay in California, USA to Gulf of California.
Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms, from 4.6-79 m depth. Usually buried in bottoms. Feeds almost exclusively on crustaceans. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9330).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00467 - 0.01482), b=3.15 (3.00 - 3.30), based on LWR estimates for this species & Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .