You can sponsor this page

Paralichthys californicus  (Ayres, 1859)

California flounder
Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Upload your photos and videos
Pictures | Google image
Image of Paralichthys californicus (California flounder)
Paralichthys californicus
Picture by Gisbert, E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae (Large-tooth flounders)
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 183 m (Ref. 2850).   Subtropical; 48°N - 24°N

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Quillayute River in northern Washington, USA to southern Baja California, Mexico. Also in northern the Gulf of California (Ref. 9330).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 33.0 kg (Ref. 9330); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 33520)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Lives mostly on sandy bottoms. Common beyond surf line, also in bays and estuaries. Occurs from near shore to 183 m depth. Feeds during the day (Ref. 9643) on fishes and squids, often well off the bottom. An important sport and commercial fish. Also caught with trammel nets (Ref. 9330). Marketed as fresh fillet (Ref. 9330). Adults migrate to shallower waters to spawn (Ref. 9643). Has very sharp teeth and is known to bite if handled (Ref. 13513).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Collaborators

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 13513)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

Download XML

Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00387 - 0.01238), b=3.13 (2.98 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08; tmax=30; tm=3).
Prior r = 0.33, 2 SD range = 0.19 - 0.59, log(r) = -1.11, SD log(r) = 0.29, Based on: 2 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, 1 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.