Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 183 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 48°N - 24°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 33.0 kg (Ref. 9330); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 33520)
Eastern Pacific: Quillayute River in northern Washington, USA to southern Baja California, Mexico. Also in northern the Gulf of California (Ref. 9330).
Lives mostly on sandy bottoms. Common beyond surf line, also in bays and estuaries. Occurs from near shore to 183 m depth. Feeds during the day (Ref. 9643) on fishes and squids, often well off the bottom. An important sport and commercial fish. Also caught with trammel nets (Ref. 9330). Marketed as fresh fillet (Ref. 9330). Adults migrate to shallower waters to spawn (Ref. 9643). Has very sharp teeth and is known to bite if handled (Ref. 13513).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 13513)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00374 - 0.01221), b=3.14 (2.99 - 3.29), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08; tmax=30; tm=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .