Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 65 m (Ref. 5217), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5217). Subtropical; 11°C - 31°C (Ref. 47167); 40°N - 34°S, 117°W - 34°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.5, range 8 - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9330); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 1 years (Ref. 47359)
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Chesapeake Bay, USA to the Antilles and southern Brazil. Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Peru (Ref. 9330).
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms (Ref. 9330). Common in estuaries (Ref. 9330). Feeds on big, benthic invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 9330). Utilized fresh (Ref. 9330).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Figueiredo, J.L. and N.A. Menezes, 2000. Manual de peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. VI.Teleostei (5). Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. Brazil. 116 p. (Ref. 36453)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00600 - 0.00835), b=3.14 (3.09 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=1.2; k >0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .