Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 549 m (Ref. 6793), usually 15 - ? m (Ref. 27436). Temperate; 60°N - 22°N, 177°E - 109°W
Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea coast of Alaska to Cabo San Lucas, southern Baja California, Mexico. Occurrence in Nicaragua (Ref. 13613) needs validation.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 72462)
soft rays: 67 - 81;
Vertebrae: 38 - 40. Caudal rounded; pectorals rather large and pointed (Ref. 6885). Eyed side dull brown or tan irregularly mottled with dark; Dorsal, anal, caudal and anal fins black; blind side white to pale brown (Ref. 6885). Freshly caught males with dull orange spots and blotches (Ref. 6885). Young light olive green on eyed side, finely and sparsely speckled with brown, black, and orange, especially on fins (Ref. 6885).
Found on sand bottoms (Ref. 2850). Young may occur at depth less than 9 m (Ref. 2850).
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.5 - 19.4, mean 10.3 (based on 1346 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00437 - 0.01992), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.30; tmax=11; tm=2.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .