Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 90 m (Ref. 7251), usually ? - 18 m (Ref. 7251). Subtropical; 37°N - 15°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina and northern Gulf of Mexico in USA to Honduras. Erroneously reported from Bahamas.
Inhabits hard sand bottom from water's edge to 18 m depth, occasionally to 90 m.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00377 - 0.01055), b=3.18 (3.04 - 3.32), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .