Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 930 m (Ref. 50550), usually 75 - 230 m (Ref. 42091). Polar; 83°N - 43°N, 117°W - 36°E (Ref. 57308)
Arctic to Northwest Atlantic and Northwest Pacific: Grand Bank and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada in western Atlantic (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: Spitsbergen and Finmarken coasts in Norway eastward to White Sea, Barents Sea and Kara Sea; also Iceland and Greenland. Also Okhotsk and Bering seas.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4700)
Inhabits muddy bottoms at temperatures of 4.4 to -1.7 °C (Ref. 4700). Benthic, possibly bathypelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on pelagic and benthic crustaceans and polychaetes (Ref. 4700).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Andriashev, A.P., 1986. Agonidae. p. 1265-1268. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. volume 3. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 4700)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -0.9 - 6.7, mean 0.7 °C (based on 505 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.35 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 1,088).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .