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Elagatis bipinnulata  (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825)

Rainbow runner
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Elagatis bipinnulata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Elagatis bipinnulata (Rainbow runner)
Elagatis bipinnulata
Picture by Freitas, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Naucratinae
Etymology: Elagatis: Greek, elakate, -es = distaff, cane (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 9710), usually 2 - 10 m (Ref. 40849).   Subtropical; 42°N - 41°S, 95°W - 156°E (Ref. 54429)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 46.2 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 7; Dorsal soft rays (total): 25-30; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 18 - 22.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 57756). Eastern Atlantic: off Genoa, Italy in the Mediterranean (Ref. 4233) and from Côte d'Ivoire to Angola (Ref. 7097). Throughout the Indo-Pacific (Ref. 37816), but rare or absent in the Persian Gulf (Ref. 3287). Eastern Pacific: mouth of Gulf of California to Ecuador; including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9283).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults are found in oceanic and coastal waters, generally near the surface over reefs or sometimes far from the coast often around floating logs or other debris (Ref. 9283, 11230, 48635, 90102). May form large schools (Ref. 9283, 48635). They feed on invertebrates, mainly on larger crustaceans of the zooplankton, and small fishes (Ref. 9283, 26145). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Good food fish (Ref. 9626) and a valued game fish (Ref. 26938); marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283); also frozen and used for sashimi (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Collaborators

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 638-661. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3197)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00588 - 0.02044), b=2.88 (2.71 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3; K=0.6 is doubtful).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.