Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 357 m (Ref. 58426). Temperate; 52°N - 38°N, 75°W - 60°W
Northwest Atlantic: Strait of Belle Isle and Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to New Jersey in USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Occurs in estuaries (especially in the north) (Ref. 7251) to 357 m depth (Ref. 58426). It is tolerant of temperatures between 0 and 21°C (Ref. 58426). Abundant among beds of eelgrass (Zostera) (Ref. 5951). Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, sea squirts, sea urchins and fishes (alewives, cunner, eels, saand lance, mummichogs, silversides, sticklebacks and tomcod (Ref. 5951)) (Ref. 58426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.5 - 9.5, mean 4.9 °C (based on 133 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00413 - 0.01674), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .