Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Menticirrhus: Latin, mentum = beard, chin + Latin, cirrus = curly.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m. Subtropical; 38°N - 33°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Grayish brown above, shading to silvery below, no prominent bars. Lower jaw has single, stout, peg-like barbel with pore at tip. Scales on belly smaller than those on side (Ref. 26938).
Western Atlantic: Virginia, USA and the continental coast of the Gulf of Mexico to Rio Grande del Sur, Brazil.
Occurs usually in coastal waters over sandy and muddy bottoms; juveniles are abundant in the surf zone. Sometimes enters estuaries. Feeds mainly on worms and crustaceans. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00431 - 0.01217), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm <4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .