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Menticirrhus littoralis  (Holbrook, 1847)

Gulf kingcroaker
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Menticirrhus littoralis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Menticirrhus littoralis (Gulf kingcroaker)
Menticirrhus littoralis
Picture by NOAA\NMFS\Mississippi Laboratory

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Menticirrhus: Latin, mentum = beard, chin + Latin, cirrus = curly.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m.   Subtropical; 38°N - 33°S

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 23.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Grayish brown above, shading to silvery below, no prominent bars. Lower jaw has single, stout, peg-like barbel with pore at tip. Scales on belly smaller than those on side (Ref. 26938).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Virginia, USA and the continental coast of the Gulf of Mexico to Rio Grande del Sur, Brazil.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs usually in coastal waters over sandy and muddy bottoms; juveniles are abundant in the surf zone. Sometimes enters estuaries. Feeds mainly on worms and crustaceans. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00404 - 0.01131), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm <4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.