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Sillaginopsis panijus  (Hamilton, 1822)

Flathead sillago
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sillaginopsis panijus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sillaginopsis panijus (Flathead sillago)
Sillaginopsis panijus
Picture by Vidthayanon, C.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sillaginidae (Smelt-whitings)
Etymology: Sillaginopsis: See Sillago + Greek, opsis = appearance.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243).   Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 12468); 23°N - 0°N, 78°E - 104°E (Ref. 6205)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 12.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4833); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3504)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 25-27; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 24 - 27; Vertebrae: 42. The head is greatly depressed; the eyes are very small. Second dorsal spine very elongate.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: Pondicherry northward along the Coromandel coast, Ganges delta, Myanmar, southward to Malaysia and rarely to the Indonesian Archipelago.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in shallow, open muddy bays and estuaries (Ref. 4833). Feed on fish, crustaceans and algae. Spawn twice a year during the months of November to February and August to September and the juveniles migrate toward the upper reaches during March and April and during December where they remain for 2 to 3 months. Sexually mature upon reaching a length of 12 cm (Ref. 6205). Oviparous (Ref. 205).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

McKay, R.J., 1992. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00407 (0.00176 - 0.00943), b=3.15 (2.95 - 3.35), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.47 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
very high
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.